Bahasa Inggeris - Bahasa Jepun Kamus:
rate 1. country in southeastern Asia
rate 2. officially Kingdom of Thailand formerly Siam; Country, mainland Southeast Asia. Area: 198,115 sq mi (513,115 sq km). Population (2002 estimated): 63,430,000. Capital: Bangkok. The population is predominantly Thai, with significant Chinese, Khmer and Malay minorities. Language: Thai (official). Religion: Buddhism (official). Currency: Thai baht. The country encompasses forested hills and mountains, a central plain containing the Chao Phraya River delta and a plateau in the northeast. Its market economy is based largely on services, light industries and agriculture. It is a large producer of tungsten and tin. Among its chief agricultural products are rice, corn, rubber, soybeans and pineapples; manufactures include clothing, canned goods, electrical circuits and cement. Tourism is also important. Thailand is a constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses; its chief of state is the king and the head of government is the prime minister. The region of Thailand has been continuously occupied for 20,000 years. It was part of the Mon and Khmer kingdoms from the 9th century AD. Thai-speaking peoples immigrated from China ƹ 10th century. During the 13th century two Thai states emerged: the Sukhothai kingdom, founded ƹ 1220 after a successful revolt against the Khmer and Chiang Mai (which evolved into the kingdom of Lan Na with Chiang Mai as its capital), founded in 1296 after defeating the Mon. In 1351 the Thai kingdom of Ayutthaya succeeded the Sukhothai. The Burmese were its most powerful rival, occupying it briefly in the 16th century and destroying it in 1767. The Chakri dynasty came to power in 1782, moved the capital to Bangkok and extended its empire along the Malay Peninsula and into Laos and Cambodia. The empire was named Siam in 1856. Although Western influence increased during the 19th century, Siam's rulers avoided colonization by granting concessions to European countries; it was the only Southeast Asian country able to do so. In 1917 Siam entered World War I on the side of the Allies. Following a military coup in 1932, it became a constitutional monarchy and was officially renamed Thailand in 1939. It was occupied by Japan in World War II. It participated in the Korean War as a member of the UN forces and was allied with South Vietnam in the Vietnam War. Along with other Southeast Asian economies, Thailand's was seriously affected by the regional financial crisis that began in the mid-1990s.
rate 3. Kingdom of Thailand
rate 4. Thailand Gulf of
rate 5. Gulf of Siam;
rate 6. formerly Gulf of Siam; Inlet of the South China Sea. Mostly bordering Thailand, though Cambodia and Vietnam form its southeastern shore, it is 300–350 mi (500–560 km) wide and 450 mi (725 km) long. Thailand's main harbours lie along its shores, its waters are important fishing grounds and beaches along its coast are popular tourist attractions.
rate 7. Thailand Official name: Muang Thai or Prathet Thai (Kingdom of Thailand). Form of government: constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses (Senate ; House of Representatives). Chief of state: King. Head of government: Prime Minister. Capital: Bangkok. Official language: Thai. Official religion: Buddhism. Monetary unit: 1 Thai baht (B) = 100 stangs; valuation (Sept. 25, 1998) 1 United States$ = B 38.85; 1 = B 66.14. Demography Population (1998): 61, 201,000. Density (1998): persons per sq mi 308.9, persons per sq km 119.3. Urban-rural (1995): urban 18.3%; rural 81.7%. Sex distribution (1995): male 49.91%; female 50.09%. Age breakdown (1996): under 15, 27.4%; 15-29, 28.4%; 30-44, 22.8%; 45-59, 13.2%; 60-74, 6.6%; 75 and over, 1.6%. Population projection: (2000) 62, 405,000; (2010) 67,597,000. Doubling time: 67 years. Ethnic composition (1983): Thai 79.5%, of which Siamese 52.6%, Lao 26.9%; Chinese 12.1%; Malay 3.7%; Khmer 2.7%; other 2.0%. Religious affiliation (1992): Buddhist 94.8%; Muslim 4.0%; Christian 0.6%; other 0.6%. Major cities (1991): Bangkok 5, 620,591; Nonthaburi 264, 201; Nakhon Ratchasima 202,503; Chiang Mai 161,541; Khon Kaen 131, 478. Vital statistics Birth rate per 1,000 population (1997): 17.8 (world avg. 25.0). Death rate per 1,000 population (1997): 7.4 (world avg. 9.3). Natural increase rate per 1,000 population (1997): 10.4 (world avg. 15.7). Total fertility rate (avg. births per childbearing woman; 1997): 2.0. Marriage rate per 1,000 population (1995): 7.9. Divorce rate per 1,000 population (1995): 0.9. Life expectancy at birth (1997): male 67.0 years; female 72.0 years. Major causes of death per 100,000 population (1993): accidents, homicide and poisonings 13.7; diseases of the heart 10.7; malignant neoplasms (cancers) 9.1; hypertension and cerebrovascular disease 3.3; pneumonia and other lung diseases 2.8; diseases of the liver and the pancreas 2.6. National economy Budget (1995). Revenue: B 760, 755,000,000 (taxes 91.7%; state enterprises 4.9%; sale of property and services 1.0%). Expenditures: B 643, 283,000,000 (current expenditure 67.7%, of which goods and services 58.1%, transfer payments 9.6%; capital expenditure 32.3%, of which government capital formation 29.8%, transfer payments 2.3%). Public debt (external, outstanding; 1996): United States$17,039,000,000. Production (metric tons except as noted). Agriculture, forestry, fishing (1996): sugarcane 62, 422,000, rice 21, 800,000, tapioca 17, 340,000, cassava 16,000,000, corn (maize) 4, 361,000, natural rubber 2, 257,000, pineapples 2,031,000, bananas 1, 750,000, soybean 412,000, palm oil 400,000, tobacco 69, 900; livestock (number of live animals) 8,000,000 cattle, 4, 807,000 buffalo, 4,023,000 pigs, 110,000,000 chickens; roundwood (1995) 39, 288,000 cu m; fish catch (1994) 3, 432,000. Mining and quarrying (1995): limestone 45,559,000; gypsum 8,533,000; kaolin clay 461,000; zinc ore 135, 198; fluorite 24, 114; lead ore 22, 786; tin concentrates 2, 201. Manufacturing (1995): cement 33, 445,000; refined sugar 5, 201, 800; synthetic fibre 540, 800; galvanized iron sheet 370,000; tin plate 250,500; jute products 76,000. Construction (1990): residential 16, 343,000 sq m; nonresidential 13, 449,000 sq m. Energy production (consumption): electricity (kW-hr; 1994) 74, 452,000,000 (75, 278,000,000); coal (metric tons; 1994) 17,095,000 (17, 198,000); crude petroleum (barrels; 1994) 9,583,000 (137, 883,000); petroleum products (metric tons; 1994) 21, 291,000 (28, 850,000); natural gas (cu m; 1994) 9,513,000,000 (9,513,000,000). Land use (1994): forested 29.0%; meadows and pastures 1.6%; agricultural and under permanent cultivation 40.0%; other 29.4%. Population economically active (1995): total 31, 347, 900; activity rate of total population 53.0% (participation rates: over age 13, 69.8%; female 44.1%; unemployed 2.3%). Gross national product (1996): United States$177, 476,000,000 (U.S.$2, 960 per capita). Household income and expenditure (1994). Average household size 3.8; average annual income per household B 99, 912 (U.S.$3, 973); sources of income: wages and salaries 41.2%, self-employment 30.2%, transfer payments 7.1%, other 21.5%; expenditure: food, tobacco and beverages 36.5%, housing 21.9%, transportation and communications 14.8%, medical and personal care 6.0%, clothing 5.4%, education and recreation 4.0%, other 11.4%. Tourism (1995): receipts from visitors United States$7, 664,000,000; expenditures by nationals abroad United States$3, 372,000,000. Foreign trade Imports (1995): B 1, 766, 142,000,000 (electrical machinery 19.1%, nonelectrical machinery 18.9%, road vehicles 7.7%, iron and steel 7.1%, mineral fuels and lubricants 6.8%, organic chemicals 3.7%, plastics 3.4%). Major import sources: Japan 30.5%; United States 12.0%; Singapore 5.9%; Germany 5.3%; Taiwan 4.8%; Malaysia 4.6%; South Korea 3.5%. Exports (1995): B 1, 407, 996,000,000 (electrical machinery 17.2%, nonelectrical machinery 14.0%, rubber products 5.8%, live fish 5.1%, garments 4.6%, plastics 4.4%, precious jewelry 3.9%, footwear 3.8%, cereals 3.5%). Major export destinations: United States 17.8%; Japan 16.8%; Singapore 14.0%; Hong Kong 5.2%; The Netherlands 3.2%; China 3.0%; Germany 2.9%. Transport Transport. Railroads (1995): route length 3, 976 km; passenger-km 12, 975,000,000; metric ton-km cargo 3, 242,000,000. Roads (1995): total length 62,000 km (paved 97%). Vehicles (1995): passenger cars 1, 440,000; trucks and buses 2, 969,000. Air transport (1996): passenger-km 29, 226,000,000; metric ton-km cargo 1, 320, 300,000; airports (1996) with scheduled flights 25. Education and health Educational attainment (1990). Percentage of population age 25 and over having: no formal schooling 11.8%; primary education 71.3%; secondary 9.5%; postsecondary 6.6%; unknown 0.8%. Literacy (1995): total population age 15 and over literate 93.8%; males literate 96.0%; females literate 91.6%. Health: physicians (1994) 14,098 (1 per 4, 165 persons); hospital beds (1991) 93, 852 (1 per 599 persons); infant mortality rate (1996) 32.0. Food (1995): daily per capita caloric intake 2, 296 (vegetable products 90%, animal products 10%); 103% of FAO recommended minimum requirement. Military Total active duty personnel (1996): 254,000 (army 59.1%, navy 25.2%, air force 15.7%). Military expenditure as percentage of GNP (1995): 2.5% (world 2.8%); per capita expenditure United States$68. All members are appointed by the prime minister. Based on 1990 census results, which are lower than the 1990 registration records estimate. Based on registration records. Percentage distribution. 1995. Import figures are f.o.b. in balance of trade and c.i.f. for commodities and trading partners. Traffic data refer to fiscal year ending September 30.
rate 8. Karst-limestone landscape of the Malay Peninsula along the Krabi River, southern Thailand. officially Kingdom of Thailand, formerly (18561939) Siam, Thai Prathet or Prades, Thai (Thailand), Rajanajak Thai (Thai Kingdom) or Sayam (Siam), byname Muang Thai (Land of the Free), country located in the centre of mainland Southeast Asia. Its area of 198, 115 square miles (513, 115 square kilometres) consists of two broad geographic areas: a larger section in the north and a smaller peninsular section in the south. The main body of the country is surrounded by Myanmar (Burma) to the west, Laos to the north and east, Cambodia to the southeast and the Gulf of Thailand (Gulf of Siam) to the south. Peninsular Thailand stretches southward from the southwestern corner down the Malay Peninsula; Myanmar extends along the western portion of the peninsula as far as the Isthmus of Kra, after which Thailand occupies the entire peninsula until reaching its southern border with Malaysia at roughly latitude 6 N. Bangkok, Thailand's capital and chief port, is in the main portion at the head of the Gulf of Thailand. The country was officially called Siam until 1939 and again briefly in 194548. The several ethnic and religious groups represented among Thailand's people are characteristic of the cultural diversity that for centuries has spread southward from China and eastward from India. Indeed, the name Thai to describe the country's people came into use only in the 20th century. A Lisu hill settlement near Pai, northwestern Thailand. Thailand's landscapes vary from high mountains to fertile alluvial plains dotted with rice paddies to sandy beaches set amid the equatorial latitudes of the Asian monsoons. Three physiographic regions cover most of the country: the folded mountains in the north and west, the Khorat Plateau in the east and the west-central Chao Phraya River basin. The maritime southeastern corner of the main portion and the long, slender peninsular portion in the southwest constitute separate physical regions. Relief The northern mountains, the southeastern continuation of the uplift process that formed the Himalayas, extend southward along the Thai-Myanmar border and reach as far south as northern Malaysia. Long granitic ridges were formed when great masses of molten rock forced their way upward through the older sedimentary strata. Peaks average about 5, 200 feet (l, 585 metres) above sea level. Mount Inthanon, at 8, 481 feet (2,585 metres) the highest in the country, is in northwestern Thailand, near the ancient city of Chiang Mai (Chiengmai); the city is overshadowed by Mount Suthep, a tourist attraction and site of the royal summer palace. Some of the rugged limestone hills contain caves from which remains of prehistoric humans have been excavated. The Khorat Plateau is a vast tableland bounded by the Mekong River on the north and east. It was formed by uplifting along two perpendicularly arranged crustal faultsone trending north-south in the west and the other east-west in the south. As a result, the underlying sedimentary rocks were tilted rather than uniformly uplifted. This tilting created ranges of low hills and mountains along the western and southern edges of the plateau: the Phetchabun and Dangrek (Thai: Dong Rak) mountains, respectively. The escarpments of these uplands overlook the plain of the Chao Phraya basin to the west and the Cambodian plain to the south. Surface elevations on the Khorat Plateau range from about 650 feet in the northwest to about 300 feet in the southeast: the terrain is rolling and the hilltops generally slope to the southeast in conformity with the tilt of the land. Situated between the northern and western mountain ranges and the Khorat Plateau is the extensive Chao Phraya River basin, which is the cultural and economic heartland of Thailand. The region, sometimes called the Central Plain, consists of two portions: heavily dissected, rolling plains in the north and the flat, low-lying floodplain and delta of the Chao Phraya in the south. It was formed by the outwash of immense quantities of sediment brought down from the mountains by the Chao Phraya's tributaries, which produced vast fan-shaped alluvial deposits. The generally rolling countryside of the southeast has high hills in the centre and along the eastern boundary with Cambodia. Notable peaks are Mount Khieo (2, 614 feet), visible from the top of Mount Phu Thong (the Golden Mount) in Bangkok and Mount Soi Dao, which attains a height of 5, 471 feet. The hills, reaching nearly to the sea, create a markedly indented coastline fringed with many islands. With their long stretches of sandy beach, such coastal towns as Chon Buri and Rayong and some of the islands have become popular year-round tourist resorts. The topography of the peninsula is rolling to mountainous, with little flat land. A gently sloping sandy coastline, including such resort communities as Hua Hin, borders the Gulf of Thailand on the east. Higher mountains reaching about 4, 900 feet line the peninsula on the west and contain narrow passes linking Thailand and Myanmar. These ranges separate the Andaman and South China seas as the peninsula narrows near the Malaysian border. Off the rugged and much indented west coast lie numerous large islands, including tin-rich Phuket Island. Worshipers at prayer before three statues of Buddha, at the ancient site at Sukhothai, Thailand. The diversity of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups in Thailand is characteristic of most nations of Southeast Asia, where shifting political boundaries have done little to impede the centuries-long migrations of people. Thailand's central position on the mainland has made it a crossroads for these population movements. As a result, speakers of all four major language families are represented in the country. Ethnolinguistic composition People speaking Tai languages constitute by far the dominant linguistic group in the country. The largest group of Tai speakers are the Thai, who constitute more than half the population. The Thai live in almost all areas of the country and speak related dialects that are differentiated by accents and a few words. The most common dialect is called standard Thai (Siamese), with the greatest concentration of speakers in the Chao Phraya delta. Since standard Thai is the national language, which is used in all schools and official publications and by the national press and broadcast media, most Tai speakers can communicate adequately among themselves. Tai-speaking peoples are found not only in Thailand but also in Myanmar, Laos, Vietnam and southern China. Little difference exists among the Tai speakers in Laos, Myanmar, China and northern Thailand, but there is a noticeable difference between these peoples and the Thai living in the Central Plain and close to Cambodia. Speakers of Lao are the largest linguistic minority in Thailand; they live in the Khorat Plateau adjacent to Laos and constitute about one-fourth of Thailand's population. Wars pitting Thailand against Myanmar and Cambodia in the past brought many refugees and prisoners of war into Thailand. The Mon, a people of Myanmar, settled in many parts of the north, centre and west, although they are now concentrated in an area just west of Bangkok. The Khmer settled in the east along the Cambodian border. Both groups traditionally spoke languages of the Mon-Khmer group of the Austro-Asiatic family; most of these people, however, now use standard Thai, many speaking it as a first language. Among speakers from the other two language families, Malays at the southern tip of peninsular Thailand are the most numerous. The Karen and other speakers of Sino-Tibetan languages sparsely inhabit the western and northern mountains. Except for the Karen, who mixed rather easily with the northern Thai, the hill tribes prefer to keep themselves isolated. They occasionally come down to the markets to trade with the lowlanders. Two small hill tribes, the Lawa (or Wa) and Semang, are of special interest. The Lawa, who speak a Mon-Khmer language, are believed by some historians to be the original dwellers of the delta plain, who subsequently were driven into the hills of the northwest by the Tai speakers who conquered the area. The Semang of the southern mountains speak a dialect of Malay and live by hunting with blowpipes and spears. The Chinese constitute a significant minority in Thailand. In the commercial centres of Bangkok and other cities, people of Chinese descent operate both large and small commercial enterprises. The Chinese also make a living as middlemen and storekeepers. Most of them speak Chinese, although many also speak standard Thai. English is also widely used in Thailand, especially in the urban centres. English is a required subject in secondary schools and the universities and frequent contact with English-speaking foreigners also encourages the use of English. The prevalence of various South Asian dialects reflects the large number of Indian merchants and their descendants in the commercial centres. Government The Grand Palace, Bangkok, Thailand. Following a coup in 1932 that ended the absolute rule of the monarchy, a constitution was promulgated, in which the monarch, the National Assembly, the State Council and the law courts were to exercise power on the behalf of the citizenry. Since then, several constitutions have been created because of changes of government, but the provisions have remained similar to the 1932 document. Under the present constitution, the king is head of state and of the armed forces. He is held to be sacred and inviolable and in the name of the people he exercises legislative power, with the advice and consent of the National Assembly. He also appoints the prime minister. Executive powers are vested in the prime minister and cabinet, who operate in the name of the king. The royal family is very much at the core of modern Thai society, being regarded as the symbol of national unity and the protector of national welfare and traditions. In form, the Thai government resembles those of Western nations: various ministries are responsible for such matters as finance, agriculture, education, public health, communications and justice. Despite this similarity, new administrations frequently have come to power through military-backed coups. These authoritarian governments dominated Thai politics until 1973, when a student-led movement forced a return to constitutional rule, popular elections and registration of political parties. Since then, there has been a succession of military-installed or popularly elected governments in Thailand. Stronger democratic principles and opposition to military rule throughout the country make any future return to more authoritarian governments unlikely. The provinces (changwat), of which there are 73, are the major units of local government. Below these are districts, subdistricts, communes and villages. Municipalities in the kingdom are classified as cities, towns or communes, according to their populations; they are run by an elected mayor and councillors. Justice Thai law has been influenced by the Hindu code of Manu-smrti, which probably was transmitted through the ancient Mon kingdom of central Thailand. Reform in the late 19th century introduced concepts of Western jurisprudence. All judges in the country's courts are professionals, appointed without political consideration; they are bolstered by a system of judge trainees. Worker inspecting tin ingots, Phuket, Thailand. Thailand's investment-oriented economy is among the most rapidly growing in Asia. Despite this success, economic development has been highly uneven, especially in agriculture. Although much of Thailand's export revenues and a majority of the labour force depend on agriculture, its contributions to economic growth have declined consistently since 1950. Aiming at diversification, the government has encouraged investment in small industry. To encourage exports, duties are low, except on rice, to which a premium is attached to prevent domestic shortages. Unions are prohibited and strikes not allowed unless management fails to agree with employees and government mediators. Resources Tin, mined mostly in the peninsula, long has been among Thailand's most valuable mineral resources and the country has become one of the world's largest producers. The construction of a smelter made it possible to process most of the ore domestically. Fluctuations in the world tin market, however, have caused production to be reduced. Other important mining and quarrying operations produce coal (lignite), zinc, gypsum, fluorite, tungsten, limestone and marble. Rubies and sapphires are mined along the east coast of the peninsula. Thailand is one of the world's largest exporters of gems and jewelry and these are among the country's top sources of foreign exchange. A procession during the Loy Krathong Festival, Sukhothai, Thailand. It formerly was thought that the Thai's original home was in China, but it is now generally believed that Tai-speaking peoples originated in northern Vietnam and began settling the Indochinese Peninsula and southern and southwestern China about 1,000 years ago. These people, however, brought with them many cultural institutions of the Chinese. As they moved southward into what is now modern Thailand, they encountered Mon and Burman peoples from the west, Javanese from the south and Khmer from the east and were influenced by their cultural traditions. In addition, an Indian presence already had been established in the region and the continuous absorption of Indian culture became a significant component of Thai cultural development. The royal palace plays an important role in leading and preserving Thai culture through frequent royal functions and state ceremonies. Among these is the kathina or robe-offering, ceremony, a colourful pageant marking the end of vassa, the period of Buddhist monastic retreat. It takes place with a procession of royal barges on the Chao Phraya River, reconstructing a tradition dating from the earliest days of Buddhism. Thai temples hold ceremonies to mark the special events of the Buddha's life, which often are accompanied by fairs attracting large crowds to the temples. Silpakorn University in Bangkok provides training in all Thai fine arts, including drama and music. The university also designs buildings for the government and for religious institutions in styles that preserve traditional Thai architectural forms. Other important national cultural institutions include the Royal Institute, the Siam Society and the National Museum, all located in Bangkok. The arts Religion has had a major influence on Thai artistic expression and is especially manifested in the sculpture of Buddhist images. Traditional Thai architectural style also is best seen in the multiple-structured temple compounds. Wood is usually the basic construction material, with the walls made of bricks and plaster. The ornamental parts are generally gilded and enriched with glass mosaic, gold leaf, porcelain, stucco, lacquer and inlaid mother-of-pearl. Remnants of the original sites of palaces and temples can still be found in many of the old provincial centres. In Chiang Mai the old, square city walls are still extant, with numerous Buddhist temples scattered inside and outside the walls. Porcelain and pottery, at first made primarily for utilitarian purposes, later came to be regarded and fashioned as objects of art. Thai painting is probably derived from India and Sri Lanka and is mostly religious. The paintings, executed by anonymous monks or dedicated laypeople, are usually drawn on temple walls. Traditional Thai music shares close affinities with the musical forms of Laos and Cambodia. There are three orchestral types: pi phat, which are used at court ceremonies and in the theatre; kruang sai, which perform at village festivals and mahori, which accompany vocalists. officially Kingdom of Thailand, formerly (18561939) Siam, Thai Prathet or Prades, Thai (Thailand), Rajanajak Thai (Thai Kingdom) or Sayam (Siam), byname Muang Thai (Land of the Free) country situated in the west of the Indochinese Peninsula of Southeast Asia. Extending about 930 miles (1,500 km) from north to south and about 500 miles (800 km) from east to west, Thailand is bordered on the northwest by Myanmar (Burma), on the northeast by Laos, on the southeast by Cambodia and the Gulf of Thailand, on the south by Malaysia and on the southwest by the Andaman Sea. The capital is Bangkok. Area 198, 115 square miles (513, 115 square km). Population (1996): 60,003,000. Additional reading Surveys of the country include Elliott Kulick and Dick Wilson, Thailand's Turn: Profile of a New Dragon (1992) and Frank J. Moore and Clark D. Neher, ThailandIts People, Its Society, Its Culture (1974). Robert L. Pendleton, Thailand (1962, reprinted 1976), still provides a clearly presented and readable description of physical geography. Paul Lewis and Elaine Lewis, Peoples of the Golden Triangle (1984), describes six northern tribes; while Seri Phongphit and Kevin Hewison, Thai Village Life (1990), contains an excellent portrayal of the people of the northeast. Wolf Donner, The Five Faces of Thailand (1978), surveys economic geography in detail through the 1970s. Lucien M. Hanks, Rice and Men: Agricultural Ecology in Southeast Asia (1972, reissued 1992), although dated, is one of the best introductions to daily life and social and economic changes in rice-growing villages in central Thailand. William J. Klausner, Reflections on Thai Culture, 3rd ed (1987), collects articles on village life in the northeast and on Thai culture and values. James A. HafnerDavid K. Wyatt, Thailand (1984), is a major reference work giving a detailed historical overview. Other general studies include Charles Keyes, Thailand: Buddhist Kingdom as Modern Nation-State (1987). Charnvit Kasetsiri, The Rise of Ayudhya: A History of Siam in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries (1976), is a detailed survey. Akin Rabibhadana, The Organization of Thai Society in the Early Bangkok Period, 1782-1873 (1969), is a basic source on traditional 19th-century society. Hong Lysa, Thailand in the Nineteenth Century (1984), is the most comprehensive socioeconomic history of this period. Walter F. Vella and Dorothy B. Vella, Chaiyo!: King Vajiravudh and the Development of Thai Nationalism (1978), is a thorough study of the early 20th century. Benjamin A. Batson, The End of the Absolute Monarchy in Siam (1984), analyzes the political and social conditions of the 1920s and '30s that set the stage for later events. Judith A. Stowe, Siam Becomes Thailand (1991), describes the period from the abolition of the absolute monarchy in 1932 through World War II. Thak Chaloemtiarana, Thailand: The Politics of Despotic Paternalism (1979), analyzes the rise of the military from the return of Phibun in 1947 to the Sarit coup of 1957 and discusses the character of military rule in Thailand. John L.S. Girling, Thailand (1981), focuses especially on the period 1963-77 and David Morell and Chai-Anan Samudavanija, Political Conflict in Thailand (1981), is a detailed study of the 1970s. E. Jane Keyes Charles F. Keyes
rate 9. Thai officials are addressed by the first element in their names. -
rate 10. King - PHUMIPHON Adunyadet
rate 11. Prime Min. - SAMAK Sundaravej
rate 12. Dep. Prime Min. - MINGKWAN Saengsuwan
rate 13. Dep. Prime Min. - SAHAS Banditkun
rate 14. Dep. Prime Min. - SANAN Kachornprasat
rate 15. Dep. Prime Min. - SOMCHAI Wongsawat
rate 16. Dep. Prime Min. - SURAPONG Suebwonglee
rate 17. Dep. Prime Min. - SUWIT Khunkitti
rate 18. Min. to the Prime Min.’s Office - CHUSAK Sirinin
rate 19. Min. to the Prime Min.’s Office - JAKRAPOB Penkair
rate 20. Min. of Agriculture & Cooperatives - SOMSAK Prisnananthakun
rate 21. Min. of Commerce - MINGKWAN Saengsuwan
rate 22. Min. of Culture - ANUSORN Wongwan
rate 23. Min. of Defense - SAMAK Sundaravej
rate 24. Min. of Education - SOMCHAI Wongsawat
rate 25. Min. of Energy - POONPIROM Liptapanlop
rate 26. Min. of Finance - SURAPONG Suebwonglee
rate 27. Min. of Foreign Affairs - NOPPADON Pattama
rate 28. Min. of Industry - SUWIT Khunkitti
rate 29. Min. of Information & Communications Technology - MAN Pattanothai
rate 30. Min. of Interior - CHALERM Yubumroong
rate 31. Min. of Justice - SOMPONG Amornwiwat
rate 32. Min. of Labor - URAIWAN Thienthong
rate 33. Min. of Natural Resources & Environment - ANONGWAN Thepsuthin
rate 34. Min. of Public Health - CHAIYA Sasomsup
rate 35. Min. of Science & Technology - WUTTHIPONG Chaisaeng
rate 36. Min. of Social Development & Human Security - CHAWARAT Charnweerakun
rate 37. Min. of Tourism & Sports - WEERASAK Kowsurat
rate 38. Min. of Transport - SANTI Promphan
rate 39. Governor, Bank of Thailand - THARISA Watthanaket
rate 40. Ambassador to the US - KRIT Kanchanakunchon
rate 41. Permanent Representative to the UN, New York - DON Pramudwinai
rate 42. Chief of state: King PHUMIPHON Adunyadet (BHUMIBOL Adulyadej) (since 9 June 1946)
rate 43. Head of government: Prime Minister SAMAK Sundavavej (since 29 January 2008); Deputy Prime Minister MINGKWAN Saengsuwan (MINGKWAN Sangsuwan) (since 7 February 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SAHAS Banditkun (SAHAS Banditkul) (since 7 February 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SANAN Kachornprasat (ANA Kachornparsart) (since 7 February 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SOMCHAI Wongsawat (since 7 February 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SURAPONG Suebwonglee (since 7 February 2008); Deputy Prime Minister SUWIT Khunkitti (since 7 February 2008)
rate 44. Cabinet: Council of Ministers
rate 45. note: there is also a Privy Council
rate 46. Elections: monarch is hereditary; according to 2007 constitution, prime minister is designated from among members of House of Representatives; following national elections for House of Representatives, leader of party that could organize a majority coalition usually was appointed prime minister by king; prime minister is limited to two 4-year terms
rate 47. TH (Internet)
rate 48. TH (ISO 3166)
rate 49. THA (ISO 3166)
rate 50. TH (FIPS 10-4)
rate 51. 66
rate 52. Currency: baht (THB)
rate 53. GSM Network Organisation Name: Advanced Info Service PLC. Network Name: AIS GSM. Licensed Service Area: Thailand. Technology: GSM 900. Service Start Date: 01/10/1994
rate 54. Area Code Country Code -66
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